A LA KING Served in a rich cream sauce.
A LA MODE Usually describing cakes or pies served with ice cream.
ANTIPASTO First course or appetizer.
ASPIC A savory jelly made from meat or fish stock, or vegetable or fruit juices, usually set with gelatin.
AU GRATIN Foods creamed or moistened with milk or stock, usually placed in a baking dish, covered with crumbs, butter or cheese and baked or broiled until the top is brown.
AU JUS Meat served with its natural juices.
BASTE To moisten food while it is cooking by brushing on liquid or fat.
BEAT To make a mixture smooth by rapid, regular motion that lifts it up and over. An electric mixer, rotary beater, wire whisk or mixing spoon may be used.
BIND To unite ingredients with a sauce such as mayonnaise
BISQUE A cream soup, frequently made from shellfish. Also a rich, frozen dessert with nuts, fruit or crushed macaroons.
BLANCH To pour boiling water over food, or place it in water, bring to a boil and drain. Facilitates; prepares food for freezing.
BOUILLON Concentrated brown stock
BRAISE To brown slowly on all sides in a small amount of fat. Add liquid, cover and simmer on top of the stove. Used for less tender cuts of meat.
BREAD To coat the surface of food with fine dry bread crumbs, then dip in diluted eggs or milk and again coat with crumbs.
CANDY When applied to fruit or fruit peels it means to cook in heavy sugar syrup until transparent. When applied to vegetables it means to cook in sugar syrup until coated or glazed.
CARAMELIZE To melt sugar over low heat slowly, stirring constantly, until it forms golden brown syrup.
CHOP To cut onto small pieces.
CLARIFY To make liquid foods or fats clear by skimming or by adding egg white, then straining.
COAT To cover the surface of food evenly with flour, sugar, crumbs or nuts; to dip in slightly beaten eggs or milk and then in seasoned crumbs or flour.
CODDLE To simmer gently in liquid over low heat for a short time.
COMPOTE Stewed fruit; usually a combination of fruits.
CONDIMENT A seasoning such as salt, pepper, spices or herbs. Sometimes relishes are also referred to as condiments.
CONSOMME A seasoned, clear soup that jells when chilled. Made from meat stock.
CREAM Usually applied to mixing shortening and sugar. To make soft, smooth and creamy by beating with a spoon or electric beater.
CRISP To crisp foods by heating in the oven or broiler or to make firm and brittle in very cold water as carrot curls and radish roses.
CRUETTES Ground food shaped into patties or rolls and fried in deep fat.
CROUTONS Small cubes or bread, fried or toasted.
CUBE To cut into small squares fi-inch to 1-inch size.
CUT-IN To distribute solid shortening through dry ingredients by using two knives, a pastry blender or a fork.
DE-GLAZE To loosen the drippings cooked on a utensil after cooking, by adding water, broth, wine or other liquids to make a sauce.
DICE To cut into/-Inch cubes.
DISSOLVE To combine a dry substance with a liquid so that they merge and the dry substance liquefies.
DREDGE To coat completely with a dry ingredient such as a seasoned flour or sugar.
DUST To sprinkle lightly with sugar or flour.
ENTRÉE Main dish of an American family meal.
FILTER To strain through cheesecloth, fine paper or a strainer.
FLAKE To break up into small pieces with a fork.
FLUTE To press pastry dough around the rim of a pie plate into a scalloped edge.
FOLD-IN To combine a delicate ingredient such as whipped cream or beaten egg whites with a solid mixture such as batter, using a gentle under-and-over motion with a wire whip or rubber spatula.
FRICASSEE To cook serving size pieces of meat or poultry covered with liquid, which is thickened to make gravy.
FRIZZLE To fry in a pan with a little fat until the edges curl up.
GLAZE To coat with sugar syrup or melted jelly, either during or after cooking.
GRATE To rub on a grater to produce small particles.
GRIND To put through a food chopper or to crush into minute pieces.
JULIENNE To cut food into narrow, lengthwise strips.
KNEAD To work and press dough hard with the hells of your hands, so the dough becomes stretched and elastic.
LARDING To cover meat, fish or poultry with strips of slices of fat, or to insert fat under the skin or into the flesh with a skewer or larding needle.
LEAVENING AGENT A gas forming ingredient used in baking to produce lightness and volume, such as baking powder, yeast or egg whites.
LEVEL Applied to measurement of a dry or solid ingredients of cooking. Ingredients should come to the top of the measuring utensil and then be leveled off with a straight edged spatula or knife.
MARINATE To let food stand in a spicy, often acid, mixture to improve flavor and tenderness.
MINCE To cut or chop into very fine pieces.
PARBOIL To boil in a liquid until partially cooked.
PARF To cut away the outer surface of vegetables or fruits.
PEEL To strip off the outer covering or vegetables or fruits.
PINCH The amount of spice, herb or condiment that can be held between thumb and forefinger.
PIT To remove pits or seeds from fruit.
PLANKING To bake or boil meat, fish, or vegetables on a wooden or metal plank.
POACH To cook in simmering liquid.
POT-ROAST To cook by braising over direct heat.
PREHEAT To bring the over or broiler to desired temperature before using.
PUNCH DOWN To strike down risen dough with the fist to allow gas to escape and fresh oxygen to reach the yeast.
PUREE To press food through a fine sieve or food mill.
REDUCE To lessen the quantity of liquid by boiling it away over moderately high heat. This concentrates flavors and is an essential procedure in making sauces.
RICE To put potatoes through a ricer before mashing.
ROAST To cook by dry heat, usually in the oven or on top of the stove.
ROUX A mixture of melted fat and flour used in making sauces and gravies.
SAUTE To cook in a small amount of hot oil in a skillet.
SCALD To heat to just below the boiling point, until skin forms over the top, as in milk. Also to pour boiling water over food or dip food quickly into boiling water.
SCORE To cut narrow groves or slots through the outer surface of food. (Prevents steak from curling)
SEAR To brown surface of meat over high heat, either on top of the range or in the oven.
SHIRR To break into dish with cream or crumbs, then bake.
SHRED To cut or tear into long, narrow pieces or to grate coarsely.
SIFT To put one or more dry ingredients through a fine sieve.
SIMMER To cook in liquid just below the boiling point.
SKIM To remove top surface of fat from sauces, gravy or soup.
SLIT To make a shallow incision in the surface, as in a piecrust.
SLIVER To cut into narrow, thin pieces.
SNIP To cut with a knife or scissors into small pieces.
STEAM To cook in a closed pot with only enough water to generate steam.
STEEP To cover with boiling water and let stand without additional heating.
STERILIZE To steam, cook or boil foods in order to destroy living micro-organisms.
STEW To cook foods slowly in simmering liquid.
STIR To mix gently with a spoon, with a rotary motion.
STOCK Made from simmering meat in liquid. Brown stock is usually made from beef. White stock is made from chicken.
TENDERIZE To make meat tender by pounding, marinating or using a meat tenderizer.
THICKEN To blend flour, cornstarch, or other thickening agents with liquid. Then simmer to produce a creamy smooth sauce.
WEDGE To cut fruit, meat or vegetables in a triangular shape.
WHIP To beat rapidly with a rotary beater, electric mixer or wire whip, to incorporate air and increase volume.